The roles played by a common language and music education in modernization and nation-state building in Asia

Yuri Ishii

Abstract


Nationalism is a product of the modern era and is closely linked to the development of capitalism. In a highly mobile industrial society that emerged in modern Europe, people needed to communicate via a common vernacular language, and the speakers of said language gradually formed a sense of unity. The vernacular was then adopted by the government as a common written national language, in its attempt to establish official nationalism, and propagated through a newly established education system (Anderson, 2006). In Asian societies, which skipped this process, the creation of nation was not a result of modernization, but was instead a part of modernization from the very beginning. Asian nations had to face a gap between modernization, which required them to imitate Western values and systems, and the formation of a nation, which in the West was based on existing linguistic peculiarities that distinguished certain members of society from others. The primary aim of this paper is to explore how Asian governments from different backgrounds dealt with this gap. In particular, this paper focuses on music education in schools across Japan, Thailand, Singapore and Taiwan, and argues that the availability of a common language, the change in power holders, the populace’s identification with the government and the historical timing influenced Asian governments’ decisions regarding official nationalism.


Keywords


modernization; nationalism; education; music; language

Full Text:

PDF

References


Akagi, O. (2009). Kokka [National anthem]. In Nihon Tai Gakkai (Eds.), Tai jiten [Encyclopedia on Thailand] (p. 133). Tokyo: Mekon.

Anderson, B. (2006). Imagined communities: Reflections on the origin and spread of nationalism. London and New York: Verso.

Asano, K. (2010). Taiwan no rekishi to nittai kankei: Kodai kara Ba Eikyu seiken made [Taiwanese history and Japan-Taiwan relationship: From ancient times to Ma Ying-jeou government]. Tokyo: Waseda Shuppan.

Bangchuad, D. (2012). The transmission of the patriotic popular songs to enhance national consciousness. A paper orally presented at the 5th Comparative Education Society of Asia Conference, Chulalongkorn University, July 10-11, 2012.

Brown, D. (2000). Contemporary nationalism: Civic, ethnocultural and multicultural politics. London: Routledge.

Chang, W. P. (1995). Taiwan no kindaika to Nihon [Modernization of Taiwan and Japan]. In Nishikawa, N., & Matsumiya, H. (Eds.), Bakumatsu Meijiki no kokuminkokka keisei to bunkahenyo [The formation of nation-state and cultural transition during the end of the feudal period and Meiji period] (pp. 605-630). Tokyo: Shinyo-sha.

Chong, S. N. Y. (1991). General music education in the primary schools in Singapore, 1959-1990. (Unpublished Ed.D. thesis). University of Illinois at Urbana-Champain.

Chou, C. P., & Ching, G. (2012). Taiwan education at the crossroad: When globalization meets localization. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Chou, W. Y. (2007). Zusetsu Taiwan no rekishi [Graphical Taiwanese history]. Tokyo: Heibon-sha.

Diller, A. (1997). What makes Central Thai a national language? In Reynolds, C. J. (Ed.), National identity and its defenders: Thailand today (pp. 71-107). Chiang Mai: Silkworm Books.

Dore, R. (1976). The diploma disease: Education, qualification and development. London: George Allen & Unwin.

Gellner, E. (1983). Nations and nationalism. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

Gopinathan, S. (2013). Education and the nation state: The selected works of S. Gopinathan. Oxon: Routledge.

Gopinathan, S., & Mardiana, A. B. (2013). Globalization, the state and curriculum reform. In Deng, Z., Gopinathan, S., & Lee, C. K. E. (Eds.), Globalization and the Singapore curriculum (pp. 15-32). Singapore: Springer.

Hobsbawm, E. J. (1990). Nations and nationalism since 1780. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Ishii, H. (2006). Composing electroacoustic music relating to traditional Japanese music. (Unpublished Ph.D. thesis). School of Arts, City University London, London.

Ishii, Y. (2004). Koshiki no chishikito shiteno ongaku [Music as official knowledge]. Yamaguchi University Faculty of Education Kenkyu ronso, 54(3), 101-110.

Ishii, Y. (2006). Shogakko ongaku kyokasho keisaikyoku no hensen ni miru bunkateki aidentiti [Cultural identity observed in the transition of the pieces adopted in primary school music textbooks]. Center for Integrated Educational Research and Training Attached to Faculty of Education Yamaguchi University Kenkyu kiyo, 22, pp. 173-183.

Katsura, H. (1991). Yoroppa no minzoku ongaku [European folk music]. In Asaka, J. (Ed.), Shintei hyojun ongaku jiten [Revised standard music dictionary] (pp. 2045-2046). Tokyo: Ongakunotomo-sha.

Kong, L. (1999). Cultural policy in Singapore: Negotiating economic and socio-cultural agenda. Geofurum, 31(4), 409-424.

Kwong, J. Y. S., Peck, E. S., & Chin, J. Y. Y. (1997). 25 years of educational reform. In Tan, J., Gopinathan, S., & Ho, W. K. (Eds.), Education in Singapore: A book of readings (pp. 3-32). Singapore: Prentice Hall, Simon & Schuster (Asia) Pte Ltd.

Leong, D. J. (2004). Tune in music 6. Singapore: Longman.

Liou, L. Y. (2005). Shokuminchika no Taiwan ni okeru gakko shoka kyoiku no seiritsu to tenkai [The establishment and development of education for singing at school in colonial Taiwan]. Tokyo: Yuzankaku.

Maekawa, K. (2009). Ongaku [Music]. In Nihon Tai Gakkai (Eds.), Tai jiten [Encyclopedia on Thailand] (pp. 81-82). Tokyo: Mekon.

Maryprasith, P. (1999). The effects of globalization on the status of music in Thai society. (Unpublished Ph.D. thesis). Institute of Education, University of London, London.

Michel, S. (2010). The burgeoning of education in Thailand: A quantitative success. In Mounier, A., & Tangchuang, P. (Eds.), Education & knowledge in Thailand (pp. 11-38). Bangkok: Silkworm Books.

Mikami, N. (2009). Gengo [Language]. In Nihon Tai Gakkai (Eds.), Tai jiten [Encyclopedia on Thailand] (pp. 12-13). Tokyo: Mekon.

Ministry of Education, Japan. (1959). Chugakko ongaku shidosho [The lower secondary school music guidebook]. Tokyo: Toyokan Shuppan-sha.

Ministry of Education, Japan. (1970). Chugakko shidosho ongaku-hen [The lower secondary school guidebook: Music]. Tokyo: Toyokan Shuppan-sha.

Ministry of Education, Thailand. (1976). A short history of Thai education. Bangkok: Ministry of Education.

Ministry of Education, Thailand. (2008). The basic education core curriculum. Bangkok: The Ministry of Education Thailand.

Ministry of Education, Taiwan. (1993). Min guo 82nian ke cheng biao zhun [1993 Curriculum standard]. Taipei: The Ministry of Education, Taiwan.

Moroi, S. (1956). Geijutsu kyoiku sosho 1 ongaku [Art education series 1 music]. Tokyo: Kindai Seikatsu-sha.

Murata, Y. (2009). Kyoku kaikaku [Educational reform]. In Nihon Tai Gakkai (Eds.), Tai jiten [Encyclopedia on Thailand] (p. 104). Tokyo: Mekon.

Music Textbooks Committee. (1971). Sing and enjoy Book 1. Singapore: Educational Publications Bureau.

Music Textbooks Committee. (1972). Sing and enjoy Book 2. Singapore: Educational Publications Bureau.

Naito, T. (1999). Mittsu no kimigayo: Nihonjin no oto to kokoro no shinso [Three «kimigayo»s: Japanese people’s sound and the depths of their consciousness]. Tokyo: Chuo Koron Shin-sha.

Nishijima, H. (1997). Hegemoni sochi toshiteno shokaka no seiritsukatei: Kyoan ni shimesareta jugyo jissen no hensen o tegakarini [The process of the establishment of the subject of singing as a hegemony device: Tracking the transition of classroom practice recorded in teaching plans]. Kyoiku Shakaigaku Kenkyu [Journal of Educational Sociology], 60, 23-42.

Notsu, T. (2005). Kokumin no keisei [The formation of a people]. Tokyo: Akashi Shoten.

Phongpaichit, P., & Baker, C. (2006). Kitahara, A., Nozaki, A. et al. (Trans.), Taikoku: Kingendaino keizaito seiji [Thailand: Modern economy and politics]. Tokyo: Tosui Shobo.

Somwung, P., & Arunsri, A. (2002). Curriculum and learning reform in Thailand. A paper presented at Invitational Curriculum Policy Seminar: School Based Curriculum Renewal for the Knowledge Society Developing Capacity of New Times, Hong Kong, 14-16 November 2002.

Shimizu, Y. (2014). «Hyojungo» seitei o motometa jidai no ugoki [The trend of the times that demanded the establishment of «standard Japanese»]. NINJAL forum series 5 kindai no Nihongo wa koshite dekita [Modern Japanese was thus established], pp. 4-12. http://doi.org/10.15084/00000926 (Accessed on September 17th, 2017.)

Sim, C. (2014). Singapore’s national anthem. Accessed on September 17th 2017, from: http://eresources.nlb.gov.sg/infopedia/articles/SIP_815_2004-12-23.html

Sim, J. B. Y. (2013). National education: Framing the citizenship curriculum for Singapore schools. In Deng, Z., Gopinathan, S., & Lee, C. K. E. (Eds.), Globalization and the Singapore Curriculum (pp. 67-83). Singapore: Springer.

Stead, E. P., & Eugene, D. (2016). First steps to music 6. Singapore: Star Publishing Pte Ltd.

Tang, J. (2013). Aims of schooling for the twenty-first century: the desired outcomes of education. In Deng, Z., Gopinathan, S., & Lee, C. K. E. (Eds.), Globalization and the Singapore Curriculum (pp. 33-47). Singapore: Springer.

Tomoda, T. (1996). Nihon ongaku kyoiku shi [History of music education in Japan]. Tokyo: Ongakunotomo-sha.

Uehara, K. (1988). Nihon ongaku kyouiku bunka-shi [A history of Japanese music culture]. Tokyo: Ongakunotomo-sha.

Velayutham, S. (2007). Responding to globalization: Nation, culture and identity in Singapore. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies.

Wright Jr., J. J. (1991). The balancing act: A history of modern Thailand. Bangkok: Asia Books.

Wu, R. R. (2015). Taiwan-ka mohaya atomodorishinai [There is no turning back for Taiwanization]. The Mainichi. May, 19, 2015.

Yamazaki, N. (2009). Sengo Taiwan kyoiku to nashionaru aidentiti [Post-war education in Taiwan and national identity]. Tokyo: Toshin-do.

Yamazumi, M., & Sonobe, S. (1962). Nippon no kodomo no uta [Japanese children’s songs]. Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten.

Zhu, A. L., Zhang, Z. P., Zhang, H. C., & Chen, H. M. (2009). Perfect match music primary 6. Singapore: Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14516/ete.221

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2018 Espacio, Tiempo y Educación

ISSN: 2340-7263

DOI prefix: 10.14516/ete

URL: www.espaciotiempoyeducacion.com

FahrenHouse: Salamanca, Spain

Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)