Changing Identities in Ottoman Context: The National «Self» and the «Other» in 19th Century Greek Women’s Writings

Katerina Dalakoura

Abstract


The paper acts as an editorial of the thematic issue «Education in Southeastern Europe: From Empires to Nation-States», in which is included. It explores the constructions/reconstructions of collective national identities within the Ottoman Empire, for the period of the 1840s until the end of the 19th century, focusing on the Ottoman Greek case. Given that women’s education emerges as an ethnic/ national project in the discourses throughout the period under research, the study based on the works of three women intellectuals concerning women and women’s education, examines the conceptualizations of «nation» and the changing images of national «selves» and «others». The concepts of «East»/ «Orient»/ «Ottoman» and «West» are also studied as connected with the nation and its position in the respective imagined communities. The women whose works are studied as representative of the different discourses and multiple conceptualizations of the notions aforementioned are: Eufrosyne Samartzidou (1820-1877), editor of the first women’s journal published in the Ottoman territories [Kypseli (1845)], Sappho Leontias (1830-1900), and Kalliope Kehagia (1839-1905), both celebrated educators, writers and intellectual. The paper concludes by associating its analyses and conclusions with the topic of the issue, and presenting the papers included.


Keywords


changing identities; national «self»; national «other»; Ottoman Empire; Ottoman Greek women’s identities

Full Text:

PDF

References


Alexandrova, N. (2012). Робини, кукли и человеци. Представи за жените в периодиката на Възраждането и в прозата на Любен Каравелов. Slaves, Dolls, Individuals: Representations of Women in 19th century Bulgarian Periodicals and in Lyuben Karavelov’s Fiction]. Sofia: SONM Press.

Anderson, B. (1991). Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. London, New York: Verso.

D’ Istria, D. (1859). Les Femmes en Orient, vol. 1. .Zurich: Meyer et Zeller.

Dalakoura, K. & Ziogou-Karastergiou, S. (2016). Η εκπαίδευση των γυναικών – Οι γυναίκες στην εκπαίδευση (18ος-20ός αι.): Κοινωνικοί, ιδεολογικοί, εκπαιδευτικοί μετασχηματισμοί και η γυναικεία παρέμβαση [Women’s Education – Women in Education (18th-20th Centuries): Social, Ideological and Educational Transformations and Women’s Interventions]. Athens: Hellenic Academic Libraries, URL http://hdl.handle.net/11419/2585

Dalakoura, K. (2008). Η εκπαίδευση των γυναικών στις ελληνικές κοινότητες του οθωμανικού χώρου (19os αι.- 1922): Κοινωνικοποίηση στα πρότυπα της πατριαρχίας και του εθνικισμού [Greek Women’s Education in the Greek Communities of the Ottoman Empire (19th c.-1922): Women’s Socialization, Patriarchy and Nationalism]. Athens: Gutenberg.

Dalakoura, K. (2011). The Moral and Nationalist Education of Girls in the Greek Communities of Ottoman Empire (c. 1800-1922). Women’s History Review, 20(4), 651-662.

Dalakoura, K. (2012). Challenging Education in the Ottoman Greek Female Journals (1845-1907): A Declining Feminist Discourse. Knjizenstvo, 2(2) URL http://www.knjizenstvo.rs/print.php?text=49

Dalakoura, K. (2015). Between East and West: Sappho Leontias (1830-1900) and her Educational Theory. Paedagogica Historica, 51(3), 298-318.

Droulia, L. & Koutsopanagou, G. (2008). Εγκυκλοπαίδεια του ελληνικού Τύπου 1784-1974: Εφημερίδες, περιοδικά, δημοσιογράφοι, εκδότες [Encyclopaedia of the Greek Press 1784-1974: Newspapers, Journals, Journalists, Editors], v. 2 & 4. Athens: Institute for Neohellenic Research/National Hellenic Research Foundation. (s.v. ‘Kypseli’ & ‘Samartzidou’).

Fournaraki, E. (1987). Εκπαίδευση και αγωγή των κοριτσιών: Ελληνικοί προβληματισμοί (1830-1910). Ένα Ανθολόγιο [Education and Upbringing of Girls: Greek Discourses (1930-1010). An Anthology]. Athens: Historical Records of Greek Youth/General Secretariat for Youth.

Fournaraki, E. (2008). Ένα πρώιμο εκδοτικό εγχείρημα: Η Κυψέλη της Ευφροσύνης Σαμαρτζίδου, Κωνσταντινούπολη 1845 [An Early Publishing Endeavour: Kypseli Edited by Eufrosyne Samartzidoy, Instabul 1845]. In Kontogianni, B. (Ed.), Λόγος γυναικών. Πρακτικά Διεθνούς Συνεδρίου [Women’s Discourse: International Conference Proceedings] (pp. 37-54). Athens: Democritus University of Thrace/Hellenic Literary and Historical Archive.

Frierson, E. B. (2005). Women in Ottoman Intellectual History. In Ozdalga, E. (Ed.), Late Ottoman Society: The Intellectual Heritage (pp. 135-161). London: Routledge.

Kechagia, K. (1880a). Παιδαγωγικαί μελέται ήτοι λόγοι εκφωνηθέντες εν τω Ζαππείω κατά την διανομήν των βραβείων [Pedagogical Essays: Speeches Delivered at Zappeion School for Girls]. Istanbul: Voutyras Press.

Kehagia, K. (1871). Έκθεσις περί του Ελληνικού Παρθεναγωγείου κατά το σχολικόν έτος 1870-1871, αναγνωσθείσα την 9 Ιουνίου κατά την διανομήν των βραβείων. Προτέτακται λόγος περί εθνικής παιδεύσεως και αγωγής των κορασίων [Report on the Greek High School for Girls (1870-1871). An Oration on National Education and Upbringing of Girls, Delivered on June 9, Is Included]. Athens: Greek Independance Press.

Kehagia, K. (1880b). Εγκόλπιον παιδαγωγικόν ή συμβουλαί τινες προς τας αποφοιτώσας Ζαππίδας [Handbook of Pedagogy: Advices to Graduates of Zappeion Girls’ School]. Istan bul: Voutyras Press.

Kehagia, K. (1884). The Orient. In Stanton, Th. (Ed), The Woman Question in Europe: A Series of Original Essays (pp. 467-472). New York: G.P. Putnams Sons.

Kitromilidis, P. M. (1997). Νοερές κοινότητες και οι απαρχές του εθνικού ζητήματος στα Βαλκάνια [Imagined Communities and the Origins of the National Question in the Balkans]. In Veremis, Th. (Ed.), Εθνική ταυτότητα και εθνικισμός στη νεώτερη Ελλάδα [National Identity and Nationalism in Modern Greece (pp. 53-131). Athens: Cultural Foundation of National Bank of Greece.

Leontias, S. (1857). Περί υψηλοτέρας εκπαιδεύσεως των κορασίων [On Girls’ Higher Education]. Amaltheia, March 29.

Leontias, S. (1858). Περί πολιτισμού: Λόγος εκφωνηθείς την ΚΔ’ Αυγούστου 1858, καθ΄ ην ημέραν ετελέσθησαν τα εγκαίνια του εν Σμύρνη Ελληνικού Παρθεναγωγείου [On Civilization: Speech Delivered on the Opening Day of the Greek School for Girls in Izmir, August 14, 1858]. Izmir: Amaltheia Press.

Leontias, S. (1859). Περί ελληνικού έθνους: Λόγος εκφωνηθίς κατά την δευτέραν επέτειον εορτήν του εν Σμύρνη Ελληνικού Παρθεναγωγείου [On the Greek Nation: Speech Delivered on the Second Anniversary of the Greek School for Girls in Izmir]. Izmir.

Leontias, S. (1874). Περί εκπαιδεύσεως: Τις η βάσις και ο σκοπός της εκπαιδεύσεως και τίνα τα παρά των εκπαιδευόντων από της κοινωνίας προς τούτο απαιτούμενα [On Education: Which are the Underpinnings and Aims of Education, and What are the Society’s Requirements from the Teachers]. Amaltheia, November 27 and 30.

Leontias, S. (1877). Χρηστομάθεια κορασιακή προς χρήσιν των παρθεναγωγείων : εις τόμους δέκα. Δια τας τρεις περιόδους της κορασιακής εκπαιδεύσεως [Chrestomathy for Girls: To Be Used in Girls’ Schools, Written in Ten Volumes for the Three Tiers of Education], 2nd ed. Izmir: Phoenix.

Lewis, R. (2004). Rethinking Orientalism: Women, Travel and the Ottoman Harem. London, New York: I.B. Tauris.

Mills, S. (1993). Discourses of Difference: Analysis of Women’s Travel Writing and Colonialism. New York: Routledge.

Rota, M. (1846). Kanonismos tou en Konstantinoupolei Ellinikou Parthenagogeiou [Regulations of the Greek Girls’ School in Constantinople]. Instanbul.

Said, E. (1978). Orientalism. New York: Vintage.

Samartzidou, E. (1845a). Αφιέρωσις [Dedication]. Kypseli, 1, iii-vii.

Samartzidou, E. (1845b). Προοίμιον [Preamble]. Kypseli, 1, 9-17.

Samartzidou, E. (1845c). Νομοθεσίαι ως προς τας γυναίκας εις την Ευρώπην και ιδίως εις την Αγγλίαν [Legislation on Women in Europe and Particularly in England]. Kypseli, 1, 31-35.

Samartzidou, E. (1845d). Οι αρχαίοι Έλληνες [The Ancient Greek]. Kypseli, 2, 59-68.

Samartzidou, E. (1845g). Η Ανατολή [The East]. Kypseli, 2, 49-51.

Samarzidou, E. (1845e). Η εποχή των Πατριαρχών [The Patriarchs’ Historical Period] Kypseli, 2, 54-55.

Samarzidou, E. (1845e). Φυσικόν μεγαλείον του γυναικείου φύλου Ή η Ελισάβετ βασίλισσα της Αγγλίας [The Natural Magnitudiness of the Female Gender or Elisabeth, Queen of England]. Kypseli, 1, 37-42.

Stanton, Th. (Εd.) (1884). The woman question in Europe: A series of Original Essays. New York: G.P. Putnams Sons.

Theaititos. (1867). Βιογραφίαι συγχρόνων Ελληνίδων: Ι. Ευφροσύνη Σαμαρτζίδου [Biographies of Contemporary Greek Women: Eufrosyne Samartzidou]. Eptalofos Nea, 13(11), 213-214.

Tsoukalas, K. (1987). Εξάρτηση και αναπαραγωγή: Ο ρόλος των εκπαιδευτικών μηχανισμών στην Ελλάδα [Dependency and Reproduction: The Social Role of Educational Mechanisms in Greece]. Athens: Themelio Press.

Voutyras, St. (1925). Καλλιόπη Α. Κεχαγια 1839-1905 [Kalliope A. Kehagia 1839-1905]. Athens: Estia.

Xynogalas, Th. (2011). Η παιδαγωγός Καλλιόπη Κεχαγιά (1838-1905): Προσεγγίσεις στη ζωή και στο έργο της [The Educator Kalliope Kahagia (1839-1905): Approaches to her Life and Works]. (Master Thesis). Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14516/ete.2017.004.001.173

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2017 Espacio, Tiempo y Educación

ISSN: 2340-7263

DOI prefix: 10.14516/ete

URL: www.espaciotiempoyeducacion.com

FahrenHouse: Salamanca, Spain

Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)