Professional autonomy of elementary school teachers in the second half of the nineteenth century. The case of Slovenia

Mojca Peček

Abstract


This article analyses the means and boundaries of the professional autonomy that elementary school teachers enjoyed in the second half of the nineteenth century in the territory of modern-day Slovenia, previously part of the Austrian and Austro-Hungarian Empires. While their work had been regulated in great detail since the Elementary School Act of 1774, which laid down even the contents and methods of teaching to be employed, the subsequent 1869 Act stipulated that teachers could become members of school boards as a means of providing them with an opportunity to influence education policies. Teachers were required to attend teachers’ conferences where, among other things, participants discussed successful teaching methods and developed detailed curricula and lesson plans. Teachers expected these changes to bring them greater autonomy, as well as a say in school policies and greater public confidence in their professional authority. This paper contains an analysis of whether or not these expectations were met. Our analysis of school board and teachers’ conference reports published in the Slovenian educational press shows that in this period an important shift occurred in the way that teaching effectiveness was ensured and teachers’ work supervised. A system was put in place which at the same time facilitated and monitored the implementation of teachers’ ideas, and ensured and restricted their professional freedom. There was a significant change in authoritarian techniques, which quickly developed yet still facilitated the growth in teachers’ professional authority, as teachers gained power and space to fight the authorities for recognition of their status and ideas.


Keywords


professional autonomy; professional authority; elementary school teachers; Slovenia; Austria

Full Text:

PDF

References


Ali naše slovenske šole kaj napredujejo? (1877). Slovenski učitelj, 5(2).

Ali niso nove šolske postave po nekaterih novejših ukazih nekoliko svoje pervotne vrednosti zgubile? (1875). Slovenski učitelj, 3(18).

Dopisi. Celje. (1880). Popotnik, 1(21, 22).

Dopisi in razne vesti. Iz črnomeljskega okraja. (1899). Popotnik, 20(15).

Dopisi, Iz ljubljanske okolice. (1875). Slovenski učitelj, 3(16).

Engelbrecht, H. (1982-1995). Geschichte des österreichischen Bildungswesens. Von den Anfängen bis zur Gegenwart. 6 Bände. Wien: Österreichischer Bundesverlag.

Eurydice. (2008). Levels of autonomy and responsibilities of teacher in Europe. Brussels: Eurydice.

Eurydice. (2007). School autonomy in Europe. Policies and measures. Brussels: Eurydice.

Foucault, M. (1984). Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison. In Slovene. Ljubljana: Delavska enotnost.

Fiedler, O. (1901). Učiteljsko stališče napram strokovni vedi. Popotnik, 12(1).

Flere, P. (1952). Kaj in kako so pisali slovenski listi pred sto leti o šolstvu in učiteljstvu. Pros­vetni delavec, 5-6, 2-5.

Grebenec, I. (1875). Novi učni načrti za enrazredne ljudske šole na Kranjskem. Slovenski učitelj, 3(22).

Grebenc, I. (1876). Kako ugajajo novi učni načrti? (govoril na okrajnej učiteljskej konferenci dne 6. junija t. l. v Senožečah). Slovenski učitelj, 4(16).

Heinz, Fr. (Ed.). (1895). Zbirka zakonov in ukazov o ljudskem šolstvu na Kranjskem. Ljubljana.

Melik, V. (1970). Slovenci in «nova šola». In Schmidt, V. (Ed.), Osnovna šola na Slovenskem 1869-1969. Ljubljana: Slovenski šolski muzej.

Melton, J. V. H. (1988). Absolutism and the eighteenth-century origins of compulsory schooling in Prussia and Austria. Cambridge: University Press.

Ostanek, F. (1961). ‘Učiteljski tovariš’. Sodobna pedagogika, 12(5-6), 131-142.

O preobilnem uradnem pisanji. (1891). Popotnik, 12(21).

O zglednih učnih načrtih za slovenske ljudske šole. (1873). Slovenski učitelj, 1(22).

Pedagoški paberki. O domačih konferencah. (1906). Popotnik, 27(3).

Peček, M. (1998). Avtonomnost učiteljev nekdaj in sedaj. Ljubljana: Znanstveno in publicistično središče.

Peček, M. (1996). Strokovna avtoriteta osnovnošolskega učitelja v drugi polovici 19. stoletja. Šolska kronika, 29(5), 69-78.

Peček, M. (1998). Učitelji o možnostih in mejah svoje strokovne avtonomije v drugi polovici 19. stoletja. Šolska kronika, 31(7), 111-124.

Perva štajerska deželna učiteljska konferenca. (1874). Slovenski učitelj, 2(10).

Poglejmo v prihodnost (1873). Slovenski učitelj, 1(10).

Přibil, D. (1900). Učne metode zemljepisnega pouka. Popotnik, 21(6).

Protner, E. (2014). Herbartianism and its educational consequences in the period of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy : the case of Slovenia. Frankfurt am Main: P. Lang.

Schmidt, V. (1967). Začetki organizacije slovenske­ga učiteljstva. Sodobna pedagogika, 18(5-6), 237-253.

Schmidt, V. (1988). Zgodovina šolstva in pedagogike na Sloven­skem. Vol. 1-3. Ljubljana: Delavska enotnost.

Slovenskim učiteljem. (1872). Slovenski učitelj, 1(1).

Šolska svetovalstva. Krajni šolski svet. (1873) Slovenski učitelj, 1(3).

Šolska svetovalstva. Okrajni šolski svet. (1873). Sloven­ski učitelj, 1(7).

Šolska svetovalstva, Deželni šolski svet. (1873) Slovenski učitelj, 1(10).

Učni načerti za Kranjsko. (1875). Slovenski učitelj, 3(13).




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14516/ete.155

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2017 Espacio, Tiempo y Educación

ISSN: 2340-7263

DOI prefix: 10.14516/ete

URL: www.espaciotiempoyeducacion.com

FahrenHouse: Salamanca, Spain

Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)